The Penguin Poo Story (and more): Questions and Answers
To find out about my future plans and ambitions, go directly to the last two questions

1Q.: Why was this work done?
2Q.: What is the scientific significance of the research?

A.: This work was carried out to satisfy the curiosity of the researchers.

A.: Any research on flow-mechanics, on movement of viscous liquids through narrow tubes and tight openings must be of interest to the life scientist (e.g., to mind come blood circulation, veins, arteries, the urinary system, ejaculation of sperm, etc.).

A.: Anatomists, physiologists, zoologists, ornithologists would find food for thought in our work: how can these birds generate such high pressures? Will only meat- and fish-eating birds generate these high pressures during venting and if so, why? What are the (neural) control mechanisms? Do the birds choose the direction towards which they are expelling their faeces or is the direction chosen randomly? Do chicks generate relatively higher pressures than adult birds? Good research always generates more questions and makes people think.

3Q.: Were there any scientific responses to our work and if so, what were they?

A.: A palaeontologist, studying dinosaur biology, wondered if our calculations could be applied to streaks found around fossil dinosaur nests.

A.: Engineers for electric power lines in an African country inquired if our research could help solving a problem they encountered with vultures: power lines near the nests of vultures often experienced short-circuits when the vultures and their young were expelling their faeces.

A.: Several zoo-operators and bird-park rangers inquired about "safe" distances for visitors to bird cages.

A.: A medical colleague of mine was inspired to perhaps 're-measure' pressures produced in humans during defaecation (only old data for this activity exist in the literature).

4Q.: Were there also non-scientific responses?

A.: Yes, lots! Numerous popular (as well as some less popular) magazines, radio stations, TV-channels, etc. asked us to provide details about penguin poo and how we made the measurements. A T-shirt manufacturer asked for permission to have Fig 1 of our publication on a T-shirt (we gave the permission!).

5Q.: What was the background for this research?

A.: The project started in Antarctica during the first (and so far only) "Jamaican Antarctic Expedition" in 1993, which I had organized and was the leader of. Many photographs of penguins 'in action' and their 'decorated nests' were taken. Later at a slide show at Kitasato University in Japan, I was asked by a student during question time to explain how the penguins actually decorated their nests. I answered: they get up, move to the edge of the nest, turn around, bend over and ---- shoot. The student, who had asked the question, she blushed, the audience chuckled, and we got the idea to calculate the pressures produced when penguins poo.

6Q.: Why was the research published in the journal "Polar Biology"?

A.: Because Polar Biology is one of the leading scientific journals covering research from the Arctic and Antarctic. It uses reliable referees, is a relatively fast journal, enjoys a vast readership around the globe, and is available in the libraries of most universities and research institutes.

A.: Because we could not get our manuscript into the Journal of Experimental Biology (our work was deemed too descriptive, not sufficiently experimental). However, one referee commented very favourably on our title and called it "a great title".

7Q.: Are we happy about receiving the ig-Nobel Award?

A.: Yes, of course we are. Science, even serious science, should reach a larger audience than just a handful of experts. We have certainly achieved that. People from all walks of life in many different countries have apparently taken notice of our work (and hopefully the questions that this work raises with regard to the propulsion and ejection of viscous liquids through narrow tubes and apertures).

8Q.: Have I published other scientific (i.e., serious) articles with a funny title?

A.: Yes. How about these ( a small selection - for full list of publications go to and click on publications):

Book Chapter: "Fish and folk".
In: THE SENSES OF FISH - Adaptations for the Reception of Natural Stimuli (Eds. Emde G von der, Mogdans J, Kapoor BG) Narosa Publ., New Delhi, pp v-ix
(Meyer-Rochow VB)

Book Chapter: "Im Dunkeln ist gut Funkeln: Wenn Tiere das Licht anmachen".
In: TIERISCHE KOMMUNIKATION (Eds. J.Kallinich, G.Spengler), Museumsstiftung Post & Telekommunikation, Edition Braus, pp 88 - 99
(Meyer-Rochow VB)

Refereed Letter: 2000 "Brood parasitism: ducks can be cuckoos too" Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15: p 26 (Meyer-Rochow)

Discussion Paper: 2000 "Not a tool for the rich alone: Developing countries also need EM" Micron 31: 113-115 (Meyer-Rochow VB)

Review: "Coming to grips with a slippery issue: Human waste disposal in cold climates"
,Int. J. Circumpolar Health 58:57-62 ,
(Meyer-Rochow VB)

Article: 1997 "UV-colours in Pieris napi from northern and southern Finland: Arctic females are the brightest!" Naturwissenschaften 84: 165-168 (Meyer-Rochow)

Article: 1983 "'Flügelfarben, wie sie die Falter sehen' -a study of UV- and other colour patterns in Lepidoptera" Annot. Zool. Japonensis 56: 85-99 (Meyer-Rochow VB and Eguchi E)

9Q. : Have I published other scientific articles with polar themes?

A. Yes, many. Here are some:

Article "An ultrastructural study of the eye of Gomphiocephalus hodgsoni , a collembolan from Antarctica".
Polar Biol. 28: 111-118
(Meyer-Rochow VB, Reid WA, Gal J).

Six Book Chapters: "Finland"; "Hibernation"; "Mammoth"; "Noctilucent Cloud Formation"; "Snow House"; "Ultraviolet-B Radiation".
In: ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE ARCTIC (Ed. M.Nuttall), Routledge Publ., New York, pp 620-626; 862-863; 1239-1240; 1437-1438; 1924-1925; 2090-2092, respectively
(Meyer-Rochow VB).

Article "Psychophysical study of the visual sun location of cloudy and twilight skies inspired by Viking navigation".
Journal of the Optical Society of America A22: 1023-1034
(Barta A, Horvath G, Meyer-Rochow VB).

Article "Survival time after last hospitalization among suicide victims in northern Finland".
Psychiatr Serv. 55(7): 821-3
(Lantto I, Viilo K, Hakko H, Sarkioja T, Meyer-Rochow VB, Rasanen P, Timonen M).

Book Chapter: "Spring snow lowers human melatonin".
In: Circumpolar Health 2003- Proc. Int. Congr. Circumpol. Hlth, Nuuk Sept 10-14, 2003 (63 Suppl. 2: 161-164)
(Leppäuoto J, Sikkilä K, Meyer-Rochow VB, Hassi J).

Article: "Atopy and Depression: Results from the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort Study".
Molecular Psychiatry 8: 738-744
(Timonen, M, Jokelainen J, Hakko H, Silvennoinen-Kassinen S, Meyer-Rochow VB, Räsänen P).

Article: "Excess mortality among long-stay psychiatric patients in northern Finland".
Soc. Psychiatry Psychiatr. Epidemiol. 38: 297-304
(Räsänen S, Hakko H, Viilo K, Meyer-Rochow VB, Moring J).

Article: "First immunocytochemical study of the echinoderm smooth muscle: the Antarctic cushionstar Odontaster validus Kohler (Echinodermata, Asteroidea)"
Protoplasma 220: 227-232
(Meyer-Rochow VB, Fraile B, Paniagua R, Royuela M).

Article: "Presence of atopy in first-degree relatives as a predictor of a female proband's depression: Results from the Northern Finland 1966 birth cohort".
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 111: 1249-1254
(Timonen M, Jokelainen J, Herva A, Zitting P, Meyer-Rochow VB, Räsänen P).

Article: "Low melatonin secretion associates with albedo in circumpolar environments".
J Pineal Res., 35: 158-162
(Leppäluoto J, Sikkilä K, Meyer-Rochow VB, Hassi J).

Article: "Pressures produced when penguins poo: a study of avian defaecation".
Polar Biology 27: 56-58
(Meyer-Rochow VB, Gal J).

Article: "Ultrastructural investigations of testes and spermiogenesis in two species of halacarid mites (Halacaridae, Actinedida, Actinotrichia): Thalassarachna basteri from the Baltic Sea and Halacarellus thomasi from McMurdo Sound (Antarctica)"
Arthrop. Struct. Dev. 30,315-328
(Alberti G, Meyer-Rochow VB).

Refereed Letter to the Editor: "Head and abdominal melatonin content in summer and winter bees".
J. Pineal Res. 32, 275-276
(Meyer-Rochow VB, Vakkuri O).

Article: "Fine structure of the lateral eyes in the tiny marine Antarctic mite Halacarellus thomasi : an ultrastructural study".
Polar Biol. 25, 512-516
(Meyer-Rochow VB, Bobkova MV).

Sci. Note: "Honeybee heads weigh less in winter than in summer: a possible explanation".
Ethol., Ecol., Evol., 14: 69-71
(Meyer-Rochow VB, Vakkuri O).

Article: "Retinal topography of ganglion cells and putative UV-sensitive cones in two Antarctic fishes: Pagothenia borchgrevinki and Trematomus bernacchii (Nototheniidae)".
Zool Sci, 19: 1223 - 1229
(Miyazaki T, Iwami T, Somiya H, Meyer-Rochow VB).

Review: "Fish chromatophores as sensors of environmental stimuli".
In Sensory Biology of Jawed Fishes ENew insights (Ed. BG Kapoor & T.J. Hara); Oxford and IBH Publ & M/s Science Publ., New Hampshire, pp. 317-334
(Meyer-Rochow VB).

Review: "The crustacean eye: Dark/light adaptation, polarization sensitivity, flicker fusion frequency & photoreceptor damage".
Zool. Sci. 18:1175-97
(Meyer-Rochow VB).

Book Chapter: "Antarctica: Caves and cave-like habitats".
In Encyclopedia Biospeologica III, pp. 2227-2234 (Ed. Chr. Juberthie, V. Decu); Moulis (France),
(Meyer-Rochow VB, Povara I, Mitofan H).

Article: "Smooth muscle proteins as intracellular components of the chromatophores of the Antarctic fishes Pagothenia borchgrevinki and Trematomus bernacchii (Nototheniidae)."
Protoplasma, 218: 24-30
(Meyer-Rochow VB, Royuela M, Fraile B, Paniagua R).

Article: "Polarization patterns of the summer sky and its neutral points measured by full-sky imaging polarimetry in Finnish Lapland north of the arctic circle".
Proc. Roy. Soc., London A 457: 1385-
(Gal J, Horvath G, Meyer-Rochow VB, Wehner R)

Refereed letter: "Visual membrane vulnerability: the fatty acid connection".
Trends in Neurosciences, 23:13-14
(Meyer-Rochow VB).

Article: "Light activation of phospholipsae A2 in the photoreceptor of the crayfish ( Procambarus clarkii )".
Acta Neurobiol. Experimentalis 60:9-16
(Kashiwagi T, Meyer-Rochow VB, Nishimura K, Eguchi E).

Article: "Risks, especially for the eye, emanating from the rise of solar UV-radiation in the Arctic and Antarctic regions".
Int. J. Circumpolar Health 59:38-51
(Meyer-Rochow VB).

Review Chapter also in: Springer Verlag ATLAS OF ARTHROPOD SENSORY RECEPTORS (eds. Eguchi E, Tominaga Y)
"Compound eyes in polar regions, caves, and the deep-sea" Springer, Tokyo, Berlin, New York. Pp 125-142
(Meyer-Rochow VB & Nilsson H)

Review: "Coming to grips with a slippery issue: Human waste disposal in cold climates"
Int. J. Circumpolar Health 58:57-62
(Meyer-Rochow VB).

Article: "Immunocytochemical observations on muscle cell proteins in the Antarctic mussel shrimp Acetabulastoma (Crustacea; Ostracoda).
Invertebrate Biol., 118(2): 184-189
(Royuela M, Fraile B, Paniagua R, Meyer-Rochow VB).

Article: "Photoreceptor ultrastructure in the Antarctic mussel shrimp Acetabulastoma (Crustacea; Ostracoda), a parasite of Glyptonotus antarcticus (Crustacea; Isopoda), .
Polar Biol. 21: 166-170
(Meyer-Rochow VB).

Article: "Immunocytochemical observations on pineal organ and retina of the Antarctic teleosts Pagothenia borchgrevinski and Trematomus bernacchii."
J. Neurocytol. 28: 121-126
(Meyer-Rochow VB, Morita Y, Tamotsu S).

Article: "Eye phospholipids and fatty acids from taxonomically-related Finnish and Japanese crayfish of similar habitats, but separated by 25 degrees of latitude.
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B123: 47-52
(Meyer-Rochow VB, Kashiwagi T, Nishimura K, Eguchi E).

Viewpoint: "Inuit or Eskimo: politically correct terminology in scientific writing."
Eur. J. Sci. Ed., 25: 57-58
(Meyer-Rochow VB).

Refereed Letter to Editor: Microcosms in Antarctic Ice
Trends in Ecology & Evolution 13:201
(Meyer-Rochow VB)

Article: "Ultrastructure of muscle cells in Acetabulastoma sp., a mussel shrimp from the Ross Sea (Antarctica)"
Polar Biol. 20:77-85
(Royuela M, Meyer-Rochow VB, Fraile B & Paniagua R)

Article: "Light-induced photoreceptor sensitivity loss and recovery at 4°C and 14°C in Mysis relicta Loven (Crustacea: Peracarida) from Pojoviken Bay (Finland)" .
Int. J. Limnology, 33: 45-51
(Meyer-Rochow VB, Lindström M)

Article: "Fatty acid composition and ultrastructure of photoreceptive membranes in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii under conditions of thermal and photic stress"
J. comp. Physiol. B 167: 1-8
(Kashiwagi T, Meyer-Rochow VB, Nishimura K, Eguchi E)

Article: "Absolute and spectral sensitivities in dark- and light-adapted Pagothenia borchgrevinki , an Antarctic nototheniid fish" .
Physiol. & Behaviour, 61: 159-164
(Morita Y, Meyer-Rochow VB, Uchida K)

Article: "Thermally-induced changes in the metabolism of the eye of the crayfish Paranephrops planifrons : Respiration and substrate utilization at three distinct temperatures" .
Physiol. & Behav., 61:615-619
(Taylor PR, Meyer-Rochow VB)

Article: "UV-colours in Pieris napi from northern and southern Finland: Arctic females are the brightest!"
Naturwissenschaften, 84: 165-168
(Meyer-Rochow VB, Järvilehto M)

Abstract: "Intracellular recordings from Glyptonotus antarcticus photoreceptors"
33rd Int. Congr. Physiol. Sci. St.Petersbg.,p P071.01
(Meyer-Rochow VB, Laughlin SB)

Review: "Electron microscopy in extreme environments and under challenging conditions: examples from the tropics and Antarctica" .
Acta Universitatis Ouluensis A286: 35-41
(Meyer-Rochow VB)

Sci. Note: "An eye for the extreme: Photoreceptor fine-structure in the Antarctic midge Belgica antarctica (Diptera: Chironomidae)" .
Appl. Entomol. Zool., 31: 631-634
(Meyer-Rochow VB, Reid WA)

Article: "Intracerebral ocelli in the giant Antarctic slater Glyptonotus antarcticus (Crustacea; Isopoda; Valvifera)" .
J. Crust. Biol. 15: 228-236
(Martin G, Jaros PP, Chaigneau J, Meyer-Rochow VB)

Article: "Caudal spinal cord ultrastructure in an Antarctic fish ( Pagothenia borchgrevinki Boulenger 1902)" .
Biocell 18: 105-119
(Alibardi L, Meyer-Rochow VB)

Review: "Light-induced damage to photoreceptors of spiny lobsters and other crustaceans" .
Crustaceana 67: 97-111
(Meyer-Rochow VB)

Res. Note: "Male and female eyes of the Antarctic midge Belgica antarctica (Diptera: Chironomidae) - a scanning electron microscopic study" .
Appl. Ent. Zool. 29: 439-442
(Meyer-Rochow VB, Reid WA)

Article: "Cephalic structures in the Antarctic nemertine Parborlasia corrugatus - are they really eyes?" .
Tissue & Cell 25: 151-157
(Meyer-Rochow VB, Reid WA)

Article: "Rhythmicity of chromophore turnover of visual pigment in the Antarctic amphipod Orchomene plebs (Crustacea: Amphipoda)" .
J. Comp. Physiol. A 173, 615-619
(Hariyama T, Meyer-Rochow VB, Terakita A)

Article: "Observations on an accidental case of raw sewage pollution in Antarctica" .
Zbl. f. Hyg. (Intern. J. Hyg. Envir. Med.) 192: 554-558)
(Meyer-Rochow VB)

Article: "Aspects of integumentary ultrastructure in the Antarctic Parborlasia corrugatus (nemertini; Lineidae) with special emphasis on ciliary abnormalities" .
Jam. J. Sci. Tech. 3, 22-29
(Meyer-Rochow VB, Reid WA)

Sci. Note: "Salt-induced, low-temperature setting of Antarctic fish muscle proteins" .
J. Food Sci. 50: 251-252
(Torley PJ, Ingram J, Young OA, Meyer-Rochow VB)

Brief Rev.: "See-through animals: the enigma of transparency" .
(In Japanese) Kagaku Asahi 51: 39-44
(Meyer-Rochow VB)

Article: "Exposure to bright light has little effect on eye sensitivity and ultrastructure of Saduria entomon (Crustacea; Isopoda; Valvifera)" .
Zool. Sci. 8: 653-663
(Lindström M, Fortelius W, Meyer-Rochow VB)

Article: "Dermal and epidermal chromatophores of the Antarctic teleost Trematomus bernacchii " .
Pigment Cell Res. 3: 33-37
(Obika M, Meyer-Rochow VB)

Res. Note: "A case of abnormal eye enlargement in the Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki (Pisces, Teleostei, Notothenioidei)" .
N. Zld. Antarctic Rec. 10: 28-31
(Meyer-Rochow VB)

Article: "A study of visual pigments in the two Antarctic crustaceans Orchomene plebs (Amphipoda) and Glyptonotus antarcticus (Isopoda)" .
Comp Biochem. Physiol. 83 B, 75-79
(Meyer-Rochow VB, Suzuki T)

Brief Review: "Wie schützen sich Tiere vor dem Kaltetod?" .
Selecta 28, 499-502

Article: "Ultrastructure of microtubules in dermal melanophores and spinal nerve of the Antarctic Pagothenia borchgrevinki " .
Cell Tissue Res. 244, 339-343
(Obika M, Meyer-Rochow VB)

Article: "Luminescent copeods of the genus Metridia with special reference to the Antarctic M. gerlachei " .
N. Z. Antarctic Rec. 7: 1-8
(Meyer-Rochow VB)

Article: "Ultrastructural observations and pH-measurements on red and white muscle from Antarctic fish" .
Polar Biol. 6: 241-246
(Meyer-Rochow VB, Devine C)

Sci. Note: "Comments on changes in the ultrastructure of rhabdom microvilli in eyes of invertebrates" .
Biol. Cell 57, 283-284
(Meyer-Rochow VB)

Article: "A study of unusual intracellular organelles and ultrastructural organization of the eye of Gammarus oceanicus , fixed in the midnight sun of the Spitzbergen (Svalbard) summer" .
Biomed. J. 6: 353-367
(Meyer-Rochow VB)

Article: "The effects of temperature and light on particles associated with crayfish visual membrane: a freeze-fracture analysis and electrophysiological study" .
J. Neurocytol. 13: 935-959
(Meyer-Rochow VB, Eguchi E)

Article: "Physiologie - warum unterkühlte Tiere Überleben können" .
Selecta 26: 1116-1120
(Meyer-Rochow VB)

Brief Review: "Physiologie - Vom Wunder Winterschlaf lernen" .
Selecta 25: 1116-1120
(Meyer-Rochow VB)

Brief Review: "Life under solid ice" .
Kagaku Asahi 42: 16-19
(Meyer-Rochow VB)

Article: "Retinal organization of the eyes of three nototheniid fishes from the Ross Sea (Antarctica)" .
Gegenbaurs Morphol. Jahrb. 128: 762-777
(Meyer-Rochow VB, Klyne MA)

Article: "Comparison between temperature-induced changes and effects caused by dark/light adaptation in the eyes of two species of Antarctic crustaceans" .
Cell Tissue Res. 221: 625-632
(Meyer-Rochow VB, Tiang KM)

Brief Rev.: "Marine life in Antarctica" .
Hemisphere 26: 48-52
(Meyer-Rochow VB)

Article: "The divided eye of the isopod Glyptonotus antarcticus: effects of unilateral dark adaptation and temperature elevation".
Proc Roy Soc. London B 215: 433-450
(Meyer-Rochow VB)

Article: "Fish tongue surface fine structure and ecological considerations" .
Zool. J. Linnean Soc. 71: 413-426
(Meyer-Rochow VB)

Article: "The eye of Orchomene sp. cf. O. rossi - an amphipod living under the Ross Ice Shelf (Antarctica)" .
Proc. Roy. Soc. London B 212, 93-111
(Meyer-Rochow VB)

Brief Review: "Leben unter eisigem Panzer" .
Kosmos 77 (5): 40-46
(Meyer-Rochow VB)

Sci. Note: " Glyptonotus antarcticus Eights, 1852 var. obtusus, a new variety of the giant Antarctic isopod" .
Crustaceana 38: 94-97
(Meyer-Rochow VB)

Article: "Fatty acid analysis of lens and retina of two Antarctic fish and of the head and body of the Antarctic amphipod Orchomene plebs " .
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 65: 395-399
(Meyer-Rochow VB, Pyle CA)

Article: "Surface structures in Glyptonotus antarcticus - a marine isopod from the Ross Sea" .
Zoomorphology 94: 290-219
(Meyer-Rochow VB)

Article: "Eye colour and spectral sensitivity in the Antarctic amphipod Orchomene plebs " .
N. Zld. Antarctic Rec. 3: 25-29
(Meyer-Rochow VB)

Sci. Note: "Leben unter extremen Bedingungen - Antarktische Algen in Asche, Schnee und 4000 m Höhe" .
Mikrokosmos 67, 21-22
(Meyer-Rochow VB, Thompson K)

Article: "Kleinstlebewesen in extremen Biotopen - zum 'Tümpeln' in die Antarktis"
Mikrokosmos 67: 34-39
(Meyer-Rochow VB)

Article: "The effects of light and temperature on the structural organization of the eye of the Antarctic amphipod Orchomene plebs (Crustacea)" .
Proc. Roy. Soc. London B 206: 353-368
(Meyer-Rochow VB, Tiang KM)

Report: "Ein Biologe erkundet die Antarktis".
Selecta 20: 3691-3694
(Meyer-Rochow VB)

10Q.: Do you have any interesting future projects you wish to research?

A. Yes.

For several years I have been trying to build up research into photoreceptor miniaturization. In other words: how small can animal photoreceptors and their internal organization be in order to still function as 'eyes'. We have examined an eye of only 10 micrometer in diameter in an Antarctic marine mite of a body length of approx. 0.4 mm. We know of some insect ocelli of only 6 micron diameter. How can such photoreceptors work? What can animals with such tiny eyes possibly perceive? There must be limits to the optics, the visual membrane stacking, the cells, pigment grains, etc in such miniature eyes. What determines these limits? However, despite repeated applications for funding through the DFG (German Science Foundation) we have been unable to secure any support for this exciting and truly interesting project (which could have spin-offs to the industry, etc). I am hoping for a sponsor to support this work.

I am also interested in researching whether lower animals have a sense of 'hope' and 'expectation'. Can 'hope' prolong life? I have a number of critical, scientific tests in mind that could provide some answers. But again, very little financial support for this research.

I am involved in some other projects, all interesting and potentially important. Some are related to visual perception and suicide, others deal with hand or foot/eye coordination. But all these projects could move ahead only with financial backing from someone or somewhere.

11Q.: Any wish or wishes for the future?

A.: Well, apart from the previous paragraph on future research projects I have one other hope. For many years I have been publishing a science column, first under the name "Hidden Worlds" in the New Zealand Herald (but now discontinued), then in the Jamaican "Gleaner" under the title "Our Strange World" (also no longer appearing), then in the Finnish Kaleva under the heading "Uutta luonnosta" (discontinued after several years of running), then in the Weser Kurier's "Die Norddeutsche" under the heading of "BioHappen" and as of late in the Hamburger Abendblatt, also with the title "BioHappen". Some articles appeared sporadically in the Indian "Sentinel". I hope that this column can appear in other newspapers or magazines or the individual column-items find their way into a book.

This series of short and scientifically totally correct articles deals in an interesting, often humourous way, with a variety of biological phenomena and personal observations.

Some title examples:
Menacing sounds of silence - Warfare with odours - Wakeful yawns and sleepy myths - Tongue twisters - Soothing and scalding - Drinking like a fish - Sleeping Beauties' secrets - Staying afloat - Unusual animal patients - Looking back to see the future - Locked in and locked up - Taste motivated explorers - Female greatness - Biting the dust to live - Booklife - With the help of some rolling stones - The elephant gymnast - Faecal frolics - Dog genetics and Japanese origins - A "Taste of history" - Advancing backward - A bagpipe in the bird's chest - A tale of tails - Heart in the head, brain in the tail - Feral friends - Training muscle - Preservation education - Garb and decoration - Animal landscapers - Hugging the wall - Songsters with a lust for cheese and some 200 additional short scientific articles......

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